Milan–San Remo

Milan–San Remo
Race details
Date Mid-March
Region Northwest Italy
English name Milan–San Remo
Local name(s) Milano–Sanremo (Italian)
Nickname(s) The Spring classic (English)
La Classicissima di primavera (Italian)
Discipline Road
Competition UCI World Tour
Type One-day cycling race
Organiser RCS Sport
Race director Mauro Vegni
First edition 1907 (1907)
Editions 107 (as of 2016)
First winner  Lucien Petit-Breton (FRA)
Most wins  Eddy Merckx (BEL) (7 wins)
Most recent  Arnaud Démare (FRA)

Milan–San Remo, also called "The Spring classic" or "La Classicissima", is an annual cycling race between Milan and Sanremo, in Northwest Italy. With a distance of 298 km (~185.2 miles) it is the longest professional one-day race in modern cycling. It is the first major classic race of the season, usually held on the third Saturday of March. The first edition was held in 1907.[1]

Today it is one of the five Monuments of cycling.[2] It was the opening race of the UCI Road World Cup series until the series was replaced by the UCI ProTour in 2005 and the World Tour in 2011. Milan–San Remo and the other four Monuments are now the one-day races in which most World Tour points are awarded (100 pts for the winner).

The most successful rider with seven victories is Belgian Eddy Merckx.[3] Italian Costante Girardengo achieved 11 podium finishes in the interwar period, winning the race six times. In recent times, German Erik Zabel and Spaniard Óscar Freire have recorded four and three wins respectively.

Milan–San Remo is considered a sprinters classic because of its mainly flat course,[2] whereas the other Italian Monument race, the Giro di Lombardia, held in autumn, is considered a climbers classic.[4]

From 1999 to 2005, a women's race, the Primavera Rosa, was organized alongside the men's but at a shorter distance.[5]


The pioneering days

The idea of a bike race between Milan and Sanremo originated from the Unione Sportiva Sanremese.[1] A first amateur race was held on 2 and 3 April 1906 over two stages (Milan-Acqui Terme and Acqui Terme-Sanremo);[6] albeit with little success. Milanese journalist Tullo Morgagni, who had launched the Tour of Lombardy in 1905, put forth the idea of organizing a professional cycling race in a single day over the course. He proposed the project to Eugenio Costamagna, the director of the popular sports newspaper Gazzetta dello Sport, who took on the organization.[1]

Lucien Petit-Breton won the race's first running in 1907

On 14 April 1907 the first official edition of Milan–San Remo was held: 60 riders registered, but only 33 took the start at 5 a.m. at the Conca Fallata inn of Milan. The inaugural edition was raced under extremely cold circumstances and won by Frenchman Lucien Petit-Breton, who completed the 286 kilometers (177 miles) with an average speed of 26.206 km/h (16.5 mph).[1] Only 14 riders finished.

The race was a commercial success and attracted some of the best riders of European cycling, prompting the Gazzetta dello Sport to organize a second edition in 1908, won by Belgium's Cyrille Van Hauwaert. The first Italian winner of Milan–San Remo was Luigi Ganna who won in 1909 by an hour over Frenchman Emile Georget.

In 1910 the Primavera gained eternal fame and a place in cycling legend because of the extreme weather conditions.[1] Riders needed to take refuge in the houses along the roads because a severe snowstorm scourged the peloton. Just 4 out of 63 riders made it to the finish. Frenchman Eugène Christophe won, even though he thought he had taken a wrong road and did not realize he was the first to reach Sanremo. Christophe finished the race in 12 hours and 24 minutes, making it the slowest edition ever. Giovanni Cocchi finished second at 1h 17 minutes from the winner.

La Classicissima

After the pioneering days of the race, began the era of Costante Girardengo, who connected his name indelibly to the classic. From 1917 to 1928 Girardengo had a record 11 podium finishes, six times as winner. Subsequent years were marked by the rivalry between Learco Guerra and Alfredo Binda, whose emulation caused them to lose several certain victories. A similar rivalry was the one in the 1940s with the mythical years of Fausto Coppi and Gino Bartali, whose duels were the subject of intense coverage and resulted in epic races.

Milan–San Remo was at the peak of its popularity and the Italian press started to coin the untranslatable term La Classicissima, the greatest of all classics.[2] From 1935 to 1953 the race was run every year on 19 March, the feast of patron Saint Joseph, hence the press in predominantly Catholic Italy gave it its other nickname, la Gara di San Giuseppe (Saint Joseph's Race). In 1949 the race finished for the first time on the iconic Via Roma, a busy shopping street in the heart of Sanremo.

As from the 1950s the race was mainly won by Belgian and Spanish sprinters, and after 1953, Italian riders could not seal a victory for 17 years.[6] In 1960 race director Vincenzo Torriani added the climb of the Poggio, just before the arrival in Sanremo.[1] The intent was to make the race finale harder, but the decision did not have the aspired effect and the streak of non-Italian victories continued.

In 1966 began the legendary era of Eddy Merckx, who achieved a historic and unsurpassed record of seven victories.[3] Seven wins is also the record number of victories by a rider in a single classic to date. After the Cannibal's streak no rider could dominate Milan–San Remo again until 1997,[7] when German Erik Zabel began a series of 4 victories and 2 second places.[3][8]

The Sprinters Classic

In 1990 Gianni Bugno set a race record of 6h 25 m 06 seconds to win by 4 seconds over Rolf Gölz. This was an average of 45.8kmh (28.45 mph). Other memorable editions in the 1990s were the one in 1992, when Seán Kelly caught up with Moreno Argentin in the descent of the Poggio and beat the Italian in the sprint;[3] as well as the 1999 edition, when Andrei Tchmil launched his decisive attack under the one-kilometer banner and narrowly stayed ahead of the peloton, with Zabel winning the sprint for second place.[9]

In 2004 Zabel could have won a fifth time, but lost to Óscar Freire only because he lifted his arms to celebrate and stopped pedalling too early.[3][10] Freire would go on to secure a total of three Primavera wins in later years.[11] In 2008 the finish was moved to a different location for the first time in 59 years, due to road works on the Via Roma. Swiss Fabian Cancellara was the first winner on the Lungomare Italo Calvino, with an ultimate solo attack in the streets of San Remo.[12] Cancellara holds five podium finishes to date, the most among active riders.

In 2009 the 100th edition of Milan–San Remo was held, won by British sprinter Mark Cavendish on his first attempt.[13] Cavendish beat Australian Heinrich Haussler in a 'millimeter sprint'.[14]

The race of 2013 was an epic contest. Heavy snowfall and below-zero temperatures forced organizers to shorten the race from 298 kilometres (185.2 miles) to 246 kilometres (152.9 miles) eliminating two key climbs – the Passo del Turchino and Le Manie – and arranging a bus transfer, for the race to begin a second time.[15] The race was won by German Gerald Ciolek who outsprinted Peter Sagan and Fabian Cancellara.[16]

In 2015, after seven years on the seaside, race director Mauro Vegni decided to move the finish back to the Via Roma, stating the change would be for 2015 and beyond.[17] German John Degenkolb won the race ahead of previous winner Alexander Kristoff.[18]


Present course

Route of the 2011 edition

Upon its inception, Milan–San Remo was conceived as a straightforward line from Milan, the industrial heart of Northern Italy, to San Remo, the fashionable seaside resort on the Italian Riviera with its trademark Belle Epoque villas. The race starts on the Piazza del Duomo in the heart of Milan and immediately heads to the southwest, over the plains of Lombardy and Piedmont, along the cities of Pavia, Voghera, Tortona, Novi Ligure and Ovada. As the race enters Liguria, the peloton addresses the Passo del Turchino, the first climb of the day, after 140 km.[19][20]

After the descent of the Turchino the race reaches the Ligurian Sea in Voltri at halfway point. From here the course follows the Aurelia highway to the west,[19] with its spectacular and typical scenery along the Ligurian Coast. The race crosses the towns of Arenzano, Varazze, Savona, Finale Ligure, Pietra Ligure and Loano, followed by the seaside resorts along the Riviera dei Fiori (Alassio, Andora, Diano Marina and Imperia). Between Alassio and Imperia, three short hills along the coast are included: the Capo Mele, Capo Cervo and Capo Berta.[21] In San Lorenzo al Mare the course turns inwards to the Cipressa, the next climb, with its top at 22 km from the finish. After the towns of Santo Stefano al Mare and Arma di Taggia comes the last and most famous climb, the Poggio di Sanremo, in fact a suburb of San Remo, built upon a hill along the sea.

From the top of the Poggio, 7 km from the finish, the course heads down via a fast and curvy descent towards the center of San Remo where the race traditionally finishes on the Via Roma, the city's illustrious shopping street.[19][21]

Race characteristics

Being the longest professional one-day race, Milan–San Remo is an unusual test of endurance early in the season.[19][22] It is often won not by the fastest sprinter, but by the strongest and best prepared rider with a strong sprint finish. The Cipressa and Poggio have foiled many sprinters who could not stay with the front group.

Topography chart of Milan-San Remo Classic race
Profile of the 2015 edition

In the early years the only significant difficulty was the Passo del Turchino, which was often a pivotal site of the race – but when cycling became more professional, the climb was not demanding enough and too far from the finish to be decisive. In 1960 the Poggio, a 4 km climb just a few kilometres before the finish, was introduced. In 1982 the Cipressa, near Imperia was added.[1] The other hills are the Capo Mele, Capo Cervo and Capo Berta. From 2008 to 2014 the organizers added the climb of Le Manie as well, between the Turchino and the Capi.[6] The Turchino and Le Manie are longer climbs, meant to cause a first selection in the peloton, while the Capi, Cipressa and Poggio are rather short, inviting attackers to distance the peloton.

In recent years there has rarely been a big selection in the latter stages of the race. Many sprinters are able to keep up with the main peloton on the climbs, and therefore the race most often ends in a group sprint. Nonetheless, the location of the Poggio close to the finish has often meant that riders' position on top of the Poggio is crucial in order to win the race.[23]

Despite its flat course and long finishing straight, sprinters' teams have been foiled from time to time by a determined attack on the last hills. Good examples include Laurent Jalabert and Maurizio Fondriest escaping in 1995 and staying ahead to the finish.[24] In 2003, Paolo Bettini attacked with Luca Paolini and Mirko Celestino to stay ahead. In 2012 Vincenzo Nibali and Fabian Cancellara attacked on the Poggio, followed by Australian Simon Gerrans who outsprinted them at the finish.[25]

Proposed changes

Milan–San Remo has had little significant course changes since its first edition, and organizers have made it a matter of honour to stay true to the original intent.[6]

View on Pompeiana, a proposed new site for Milan–San Remo

The last change to the course was the inclusion of Le Manie, in 2008. In September 2013, organiser RCS Sport announced the race would include the Pompeiana climb between the Cipressa and Poggio.[26] To keep the race at a reasonable distance, it would exclude Le Manie. The Pompeiana, named after the village the road passes, climbs five kilometres with a 13% maximum gradient, and would therefore be the most difficult climb in the race finale.[6]

The proposed route was reversed just weeks before the race in March 2014, when the Pompeiana had been damaged by recent landslides, making it too dangerous for a cycling race to pass.[27] Hence the race was re-routed and made more traditional and sprinter-friendly. This led to a number of sprinters, who had earlier ruled themselves out due to the addition of the extra climb, including Mark Cavendish, declaring their interest in riding again.[28]

In 2015, the climb of Le Manie was cut from the race, and neither was the Pompeiana included in the trajectory. With this pre-2008 route, race organizers stated they want to respect the race's traditional course.[29]


Rider Team
1907 France Petit-Breton, LucienLucien Petit-Breton (FRA) Peugeot
1908 Belgium Hauwaert, Cyrille vanCyrille van Hauwaert (BEL) Alcyon-Dunlop
1909 Italy Ganna, LuigiLuigi Ganna (ITA) Atala
1910 France Christophe, EugeneEugène Christophe (FRA) Alcyon-Dunlop
1911 France Garrigou, GustaveGustave Garrigou (FRA) Alcyon-Dunlop
1912 France Pelissier, HenriHenri Pélissier (FRA) Alcyon-Dunlop
1913 Belgium Defraye, OdileOdile Defraye (BEL) Alcyon-Soly
1914 Italy Agostoni, UgoUgo Agostoni (ITA) Bianchi
1915 Italy Corlaita, EzioEzio Corlaita (ITA) Dei
1916 No race
1917 Italy Belloni, GaetanoGaetano Belloni (ITA) Bianchi
1918 Italy Girardengo, CostanteCostante Girardengo (ITA) Bianchi
1919 Italy Gremo, AngeloAngelo Gremo (ITA) Stucchi
1920 Italy Belloni, GaetanoGaetano Belloni (ITA) Bianchi-Pirelli
1921 Italy Girardengo, CostanteCostante Girardengo (ITA) Stucchi
1922 Italy Brunero, GiovanniGiovanni Brunero (ITA) Legnano-Pirelli
1923 Italy Girardengo, CostanteCostante Girardengo (ITA) Maino
1924 Italy Linari, PietroPietro Linari (ITA) Legnano-Pirelli
1925 Italy Girardengo, CostanteCostante Girardengo (ITA) Wolsit-Pirelli
1926 Italy Girardengo, CostanteCostante Girardengo (ITA) Wolsit-Pirelli
1927 Italy Chesi, PietroPietro Chesi (ITA) Ives-Pirelli
1928 Italy Girardengo, CostanteCostante Girardengo (ITA) Maino
1929 Italy Binda, AlfredoAlfredo Binda (ITA) Legnano-Torpedo
1930 Italy Mara, MicheleMichele Mara (ITA) Bianchi-Pirelli
1931 Italy Binda, AlfredoAlfredo Binda (ITA) Legnano-Hutchinson
1932 Italy Bovet, AlfredoAlfredo Bovet (ITA) Bianchi
1933 Italy Guerra, LearcoLearco Guerra (ITA) Maino
1934 Belgium Demuysere, JefJef Demuysere (BEL) Genial Lucifer-Hutchinson
1935 Italy Olmo, GiuseppeGiuseppe Olmo (ITA) Bianchi
1936 Italy Varetto, AngeloAngelo Varetto (ITA) Gloria
1937 Italy Del Cancia, CesareCesare Del Cancia (ITA) Ganna
1938 Italy Olmo, GiuseppeGiuseppe Olmo (ITA) Bianchi
1939 Italy Bartali, GinoGino Bartali (ITA) Legnano
1940 Italy Bartali, GinoGino Bartali (ITA) Legnano
1941 Italy Favalli, PierinoPierino Favalli (ITA) Legnano
1942 Italy Leoni, AdolfoAdolfo Leoni (ITA) Bianchi
1943 Italy Cinelli, CinoCino Cinelli (ITA) Bianchi
1944 No race
1945 No race
1946 Italy Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi (ITA) Bianchi
1947 Italy Bartali, GinoGino Bartali (ITA) Legnano
1948 Italy Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi (ITA) Bianchi
1949 Italy Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi (ITA) Bianchi-Ursus
1950 Italy Bartali, GinoGino Bartali (ITA) Bartali-Gardiol
1951 France Bobet, LouisonLouison Bobet (FRA) Stella-Dunlop
1952 Italy Petrucci, LorettoLoretto Petrucci (ITA) Bianchi-Pirelli
1953 Italy Petrucci, LorettoLoretto Petrucci (ITA) Bianchi-Pirelli
1954 Belgium Steenbergen, Rik VanRik Van Steenbergen (BEL) Mercier-Hutchinson
1955 Belgium Derijcke, GermainGermain Derijcke (BEL) Alcyon-Dunlop
1956 Belgium Bruyne, Fred DeFred De Bruyne (BEL) Mercier-BP
1957 Spain Poblet, MiguelMiguel Poblet (ESP) Ignis-Doniselli
1958 Belgium Looy, Rik vanRik van Looy (BEL) Faema
1959 Spain Poblet, MiguelMiguel Poblet (ESP) Ignis
1960 France Privat, ReneRené Privat (FRA) Mercier-BP
1961 France Poulidor, RaymondRaymond Poulidor (FRA) Mercier-BP
1962 Belgium Daems, EmileEmile Daems (BEL) Philco
1963 France Groussard, JosephJoseph Groussard (FRA) Pelforth-Sauvage-Lejeune
1964 United Kingdom Simpson, TomTom Simpson (GBR) Peugeot-BP
1965 Netherlands Hartog, Arie denArie den Hartog (NED) Ford France-Gitane
1966 Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) Peugeot-BP Michelin
1967 Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) Peugeot-BP Michelin
1968 Germany Altig, RudiRudi Altig (GER) Salvarani
1969 Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) Faema
1970 Italy Dancelli, MicheleMichele Dancelli (ITA) Molteni
1971 Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) Molteni-Arcore
1972 Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) Molteni
1973 Belgium De Vlaeminck, RogerRoger De Vlaeminck (BEL) Brooklyn
1974 Italy Gimondi, FeliceFelice Gimondi (ITA) Bianchi-Campagnolo
1975 Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) Molteni
1976 Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) Molteni-Campagnolo
1977 Netherlands Raas, JanJan Raas (NED) Frisol-Gazelle
1978 Belgium De Vlaeminck, RogerRoger De Vlaeminck (BEL) Sanson-Campagnolo
1979 Belgium De Vlaeminck, RogerRoger De Vlaeminck (BEL) Gis Gelati
1980 Italy Gavazzi, PierinoPierino Gavazzi (ITA) Magniflex-Olmo
1981 Belgium De Wolf, AlfonsAlfons De Wolf (BEL) Vermeer Thijs-Mimo Salons
1982 France Gomez, MarcMarc Gomez (FRA) Wolber-Spidel
1983 Italy Saronni, GiuseppeGiuseppe Saronni (ITA) Del Tongo
1984 Italy Moser, FrancescoFrancesco Moser (ITA) Gis
1985 Netherlands Kuiper, HennieHennie Kuiper (NED) Verandalux-Dries-Rossin
1986 Republic of Ireland Kelly, SeanSean Kelly (IRL) Skil-Sem Kas
1987 Switzerland Maechler, ErichErich Maechler (SUI) Carrera Jeans–Vagabond
1988 France Fignon, LaurentLaurent Fignon (FRA) Système U – Gitane
1989 France Fignon, LaurentLaurent Fignon (FRA) Super U-Raleigh-Fiat
1990 Italy Bugno, GianniGianni Bugno (ITA) Chateau d'Ax–Salotti
1991 Italy Chiappucci, ClaudioClaudio Chiappucci (ITA) Carrera Jeans–Tassoni
1992 Republic of Ireland Kelly, SeanSean Kelly (IRL) Lotus–Festina
1993 Italy Fondriest, MaurizioMaurizio Fondriest (ITA) Lampre–Polti
1994 Italy Furlan, GiorgioGiorgio Furlan (ITA) Gewiss–Ballan
1995 France Jalabert, LaurentLaurent Jalabert (FRA) ONCE
1996 Italy Colombo, GabrieleGabriele Colombo (ITA) Gewiss Playbus
1997 Germany Zabel, ErikErik Zabel (GER) Team Telekom
1998 Germany Zabel, ErikErik Zabel (GER) Team Telekom
1999 Belgium Tchmil, AndreiAndrei Tchmil (BEL) Lotto–Mobistar
2000 Germany Zabel, ErikErik Zabel (GER) Team Telekom
2001 Germany Zabel, ErikErik Zabel (GER) Team Telekom
2002 Italy Cipollini, MarioMario Cipollini (ITA) Acqua & Sapone-Cantina Tollo
2003 Italy Bettini, PaoloPaolo Bettini (ITA) Quick-Step–Davitamon
2004 Spain Freire, OscarÓscar Freire (ESP) Rabobank
2005 Italy Petacchi, AlessandroAlessandro Petacchi (ITA) Fassa Bortolo
2006 Italy Pozzato, FilippoFilippo Pozzato (ITA) Quick-Step–Innergetic
2007 Spain Freire, OscarÓscar Freire (ESP) Rabobank
2008 Switzerland Cancellara, FabianFabian Cancellara (SUI) Team CSC
2009 United Kingdom Cavendish, MarkMark Cavendish (GBR) Team Columbia–High Road
2010 Spain Freire, OscarÓscar Freire (ESP) Rabobank
2011 Australia Goss, MattMatthew Goss (AUS) HTC–Highroad
2012 Australia Gerrans, SimonSimon Gerrans (AUS) GreenEDGE
2013 Germany Ciolek, GeraldGerald Ciolek (GER) MTN–Qhubeka
2014 Norway Kristoff, AlexanderAlexander Kristoff (NOR) Team Katusha
2015 Germany Degenkolb, JohnJohn Degenkolb (GER) Team Giant–Alpecin
2016 France Démare, ArnaudArnaud Démare (FRA) FDJ

Most wins

Riders in italics are stil active

Wins Rider Editions
7  Eddy Merckx (BEL) 1966, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1975, 1976
6  Costante Girardengo (ITA) 1918, 1921, 1923, 1925, 1926, 1928
4  Gino Bartali (ITA) 1939, 1940, 1947, 1950
 Erik Zabel (GER) 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001
3  Fausto Coppi (ITA) 1946, 1948, 1949
 Roger De Vlaeminck (BEL) 1973, 1978, 1979
 Óscar Freire (ESP) 2004, 2007, 2010
2  Gaetano Belloni (ITA) 1917, 1920
 Alfredo Binda (ITA) 1929, 1931
 Giuseppe Olmo (ITA) 1935, 1938
 Loretto Petrucci (ITA) 1952, 1953
 Miguel Poblet (ESP) 1957, 1959
 Laurent Fignon (FRA) 1988, 1989
 Seán Kelly (IRL) 1986, 1992

Wins per country

Wins Country
50  Italy
20  Belgium
13  France
7  Germany
5  Spain
3  Netherlands
2  Australia
 United Kingdom
1  Norway

Primavera Rosa

From 1999 to 2005 seven editions of Milan–San Remo for women were held. The race was organized on the same day and finished in Sanremo shortly before the men, but covered a shorter distance. The start was not in Milan, but in Varazze, hence it was named Primavera Rosa. It was part of the UCI Women's Road Cycling World Cup. The 2006 edition was initially planned but cancelled before the event.[30] Russian Zoulfia Zabirova was the only rider to win twice.

Granfondo Milano-Sanremo

The Granfondo Milano-Sanremo is an annual bicycle tour event for recreational cyclists over the same course as the professional race from Milan to San Remo. It is one of the oldest Granfondos in Italy, founded in 1971 by the Unione Cicloturistica Sanremo and popular among cyclotourists from all over the world. It is held every Spring, in recent years in late April.[31][32]


The race features in the 1980 Italian comedy film Fantozzi contro tutti.


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