1982 Tour de France
|Route of the 1982 Tour de France|
|Stages||21 + Prologue, including one split stage|
|Distance||3,507 km (2,179 mi)|
|Winning time||92h 08' 46"|
|Winner||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||(Renault–Elf–Gitane)|
|Second||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||(Coop–Mercier–Mavic)|
|Third||Johan van der Velde (NED)||(TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx)|
|Points||Sean Kelly (IRE)||(Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo)|
|Mountains||Bernard Vallet (FRA)||(La Redoute–Motobecane)|
|Youth||Phil Anderson (AUS)||(Peugeot–Shell–Michelin)|
|Combination||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||(Renault–Elf–Gitane)|
|Sprints||Sean Kelly (IRE)||(Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo)|
|Team Points||Ti Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx|
The 1982 Tour de France was the 69th edition of the Tour de France, taking place from 2 to 25 July. The total race distance was 22 stages over 3,507 km (2,179 mi). It was won by Bernard Hinault, his fourth victory so far.
In response to the finish of the 1981 Tour de France, French minister of sports Edwige Avice objected to the amount of advertising in the race, and suggested the Tour to return to the national team format. The Tour organisation needed the money brought in by the sponsors, and no changes were made to the team structure.
The Tour organisation decided to start with 17 teams, each with 10 cyclists, for a total of 170, a new record. Tour director Félix Lévitan suggested to reduce the number of cyclists by starting with teams of 9 cyclists, but this was rejected. Teams could submit a request to join until 15 May 1982. To promote cycling in the United States of America, the American national cycling team would automatically be accepted, but the American team made no request.
- La Redoute–Motobecane
- TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx
- Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx
- Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo
- DAF Trucks–Tévé Blad–Rossin
- Inoxpran–Pentole Posate
Hinault, who had won the Tour in 1978, 1979 and 1981, and left the 1980 Tour in leading position, was the clear favourite for the victory. In those other years, Hinault had won several races before the Tour, but in 1982 he had only won one major race, the 1982 Giro d'Italia. Hinault tried to be the fourth cyclist, after Fausto Coppi, Jacques Anquetil and Eddy Merckx, to win the Giro-Tour double.
Notable absent was Lucien Van Impe, who was second in the 1981 Tour de France, winning the mountains classification. Since the 1969 Tour de France, Van Impe had started each edition, winning the general classification in the 1976 Tour and the mountains classification five times. Van Impe wanted to join, but his team Metauro was not invited, as the organisation considered it not strong enough to ride both the Giro and the Tour. Van Impe tried to find a team to hire him only for the 1982 Tour, but was not successful.
Route and stages
|P||2 July||Basel (Switzerland)||7 km (4.3 mi)||Individual time trial||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|1||3 July||Basel (Switzerland) to Möhlin (Switzerland)||207 km (129 mi)||Hilly stage||Ludo Peeters (BEL)|
|2||4 July||Basel (Switzerland) to Nancy||250 km (160 mi)||Plain stage||Phil Anderson (AUS)|
|3||5 July||Nancy to Longwy||134 km (83 mi)||Plain stage||Daniel Willems (BEL)|
|4||6 July||Beauraing (Belgium) to Mouscron (Belgium)||219 km (136 mi)||Plain stage||Gerrie Knetemann (NED)|
|5||7 July||Orchies to Fontaine-au-Pire||73 km (45 mi)||Team time trial||Cancelled and replaced by stage 9a|
|6||8 July||Lille||233 km (145 mi)||Plain stage||Jan Raas (NED)|
|9 July||Lille||Rest day|
|7||10 July||Cancale to Concarneau||235 km (146 mi)||Plain stage||Pol Verschuere (BEL)|
|8||11 July||Concarneau to Châteaulin||201 km (125 mi)||Plain stage||Frank Hoste (BEL)|
|9a||12 July||Lorient to Plumelec||69 km (43 mi)||Team time trial||Renault–Elf–Gitane|
|9b||Plumelec to Nantes||138 km (86 mi)||Plain stage||Stefan Mutter (SUI)|
|10||13 July||Saintes to Bordeaux||147 km (91 mi)||Plain stage||Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA)|
|11||14 July||Valence d'Agen||57 km (35 mi)||Individual time trial||Gerrie Knetemann (NED)|
|12||15 July||Fleurance to Pau||249 km (155 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Sean Kelly (IRE)|
|13||16 July||Pau to Saint-Lary-Soulan Pla d'Adet||122 km (76 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Beat Breu (SUI)|
|13 July||Martigues||Rest day|
|14||18 July||Martigues||33 km (21 mi)||Individual time trial||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|15||19 July||Manosque to Orcières-Merlette||208 km (129 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Pascal Simon (FRA)|
|16||20 July||Orcières-Merlette to Alpe d'Huez||123 km (76 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Beat Breu (SUI)|
|17||21 July||Le Bourg-d'Oisans to Morzine||251 km (156 mi)||Stage with mountain(s)||Peter Winnen (NED)|
|18||22 July||Morzine to Saint-Priest||233 km (145 mi)||Plain stage||Adrie van Houwelingen (NED)|
|19||23 July||Saint-Priest||48 km (30 mi)||Individual time trial||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|20||24 July||Sens to Aulnay-sous-Bois||161 km (100 mi)||Plain stage||Daniel Willems (BEL)|
|21||25 July||Fontenay-sous-Bois to Paris (Champs-Élysées)||187 km (116 mi)||Plain stage||Bernard Hinault (FRA)|
|Total||3,507 km (2,179 mi)|
After Bernard Hinault, the winner of the previous Tour and main favourite, won the prologue, seven seconds ahead of Gerrie Knetemann, Belgian Ludo Peeters took the lead in the first stage, by finishing 38 seconds ahead of the peloton. On the second stage however, Phil Anderson took the lead. Anderson had worn the yellow jersey in the previous year also, the first time in history that the yellow jersey was in non-European hands, but this year he would keep it longer. In the fifth stage, a team time trial was scheduled. Employees of the Usinor steel factory in Denain were blocking the road, and the race had to be canceled, while some teams were already racing. The tour organisers quickly decided to replace it by an extra stage, in the morning before stage nine.
In the eighth stage, Régis Clère had escaped, and created a margin of almost thirteen minutes. The stage ended on a circuit of 6 km, where 15 laps were planned. Clère was unable to lap the rest of the field because of a flat tire, and was caught by the rest. Phil Anderson remained the leader until the individual time trial in stage eleven. Then, as expected, Bernard Hinault took the lead, even though Gerrie Knetemann beat him in the time trial.
Then the race got to the Pyrenées. Hinault kept his rivals in sight, and allowed other cyclists to escape. Then, in stage 14, Hinault won the time trial, and had created a margin of more than five minutes. In the alps, Hinault used the same tactics, and lost no time to his rivals. In stage sixteen, protesting farmers delayed the start of the race, but this time the race could continue, after the farmers allowed the riders to start. Then, in the time trial in stage 19, Hinault won again.
There were several classifications in the 1982 Tour de France, four of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour.
Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey.
There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either hors catégorie, first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a polkadot jersey.
Another classification was the young rider classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only cyclists under 24 were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.
The fifth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. In 1982, this classification had no associated jersey.
For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that lead this classification wore yellow caps.
In the 1981 Tour de France, Urs Freuler, Eddy Planckaert and Walter Planckaert had left the race before the Alps. The Tour organisers did not want this to happen again, so in 1982, cyclists were not allowed to leave the Tour without a good reason. A cyclist that left the Tour unauthorized would lose all the prize money that he won so far, receive a fine, and would not be allowed to join the next year.
|Denotes the winner of the general classification||Denotes the winner of the points classification|
|Denotes the winner of the mountains classification||Denotes the winner of the young rider classification|
|1||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||92h 08' 46"|
|2||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||+ 6' 21"|
|3||Johan van der Velde (NED)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 8' 59"|
|4||Peter Winnen (NED)||Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 9' 24"|
|5||Phil Anderson (AUS)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 12' 16"|
|6||Beat Breu (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||+ 13' 21"|
|7||Daniel Willems (BEL)||Sunair–Colnago–Campagnolo||+ 15' 33"|
|8||Raymond Martin (FRA)||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||+ 15' 35"|
|9||Hennie Kuiper (NED)||DAF Trucks–Tévé Blad–Rossin||+ 17' 01"|
|10||Alberto Fernández (ESP)||Teka||+ 17' 19"|
|Final general classification (11–125)|
|11||Robert Alban (FRA)||La Redoute–Motobecane||+ 17' 21"|
|12||Bernard Vallet (FRA)||La Redoute–Motobecane||+ 19' 52"|
|13||Jean-René Bernaudeau (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 20' 02"|
|14||Sven-Åke Nilsson (SWE)||Wolber–Spidel||+ 25' 11"|
|15||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo||+ 27' 17"|
|16||Charly Berard (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 31' 35"|
|17||Kim Andersen (DEN)||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||+ 31' 57"|
|18||Jacques Michaud (FRA)||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||+ 32' 21"|
|19||Theo de Rooij (NED)||Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 32' 37"|
|20||Pascal Simon (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 34' 22"|
|21||Stefan Mutter (SUI)||Puch–Eurotex–Campagnolo||+ 35' 02"|
|22||Guy Nulens (BEL)||DAF Trucks–Tévé Blad–Rossin||+ 35' 48"|
|23||Jonathan Boyer (USA)||Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo||+ 44' 09"|
|24||René Martens (BEL)||DAF Trucks–Tévé Blad–Rossin||+ 44' 28"|
|25||Lucien Didier (LUX)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 44' 37"|
|26||Jean-François Rodriguez (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 45' 31"|
|27||Maurice Le Guilloux (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 46' 58"|
|28||Johan De Muynck (BEL)||La Redoute–Motobecane||+ 48' 51"|
|29||Christian Seznec (FRA)||Wolber–Spidel||+ 49' 28"|
|30||Marc Madiot (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 49' 28"|
|31||Alfons De Wolf (BEL)||Vermeer–Thijs–Gios||+ 50' 21"|
|32||Gerard Veldscholten (NED)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 51' 30"|
|33||Mario Beccia (ITA)||Hoonved–Botecchia||+ 52' 35"|
|34||Ludo Peeters (BEL)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 52' 59"|
|35||Alain Vigneron (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 53' 48"|
|36||Dominique Arnaud (FRA)||Wolber–Spidel||+ 54' 12"|
|37||Marino Lejarreta (ESP)||Teka||+ 54' 29"|
|38||Patrick Perret (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 55' 05"|
|39||Pierre Bazzo (FRA)||La Redoute–Motobecane||+ 55' 30"|
|40||Adrie van Houwelingen (NED)||Vermeer–Thijs–Gios||+ 56' 43"|
|41||Patrick Bonnet (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 57' 16"|
|42||Didier Vanoverschelde (FRA)||La Redoute–Motobecane||+ 1h 00' 00"|
|43||Marcel Tinazzi (FRA)||Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo||+ 1h 00' 33"|
|44||René Bittinger (FRA)||Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo||+ 1h 00' 53"|
|45||Régis Clère (FRA)||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||+ 1h 00' 55"|
|46||Henk Lubberding (NED)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 02' 29"|
|47||Gerrie Knetemann (NED)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 03' 41"|
|48||Michel Laurent (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 1h 04' 58"|
|49||Jean-François Chaurin (FRA)||Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo||+ 1h 05' 57"|
|50||Pascal Poisson (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 1h 08' 24"|
|51||Pierre-Henri Menthéour (FRA)||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||+ 1h 10' 47"|
|52||Leo van Vliet (NED)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 12' 18"|
|53||Ad Wijnands (NED)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 13' 22"|
|54||Jean-Philippe Vandenbrande (BEL)||Wickes–Bouwmarkt–Splendor||+ 1h 14' 56"|
|55||Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA)||Wolber–Spidel||+ 1h 15' 56"|
|56||Hubert Linard (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 1h 17' 04"|
|57||Ismael Lejarreta (ESP)||Teka||+ 1h 20' 21"|
|58||Luciano Loro (ITA)||Inoxpran–Pentole Posate||+ 1h 22' 49"|
|59||Pierre Le Bigaut (FRA)||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||+ 1h 23' 00"|
|60||Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 1h 23' 04"|
|61||Ludo De Keulenaer (BEL)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 24' 55"|
|62||Marc Durant (FRA)||Wolber–Spidel||+ 1h 27' 23"|
|63||Ronald De Witte (BEL)||Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 27' 56"|
|64||Dominique Garde (FRA)||Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo||+ 1h 29' 14"|
|65||Antonio Ferretti (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||+ 1h 30' 07"|
|66||Frédéric Brun (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 1h 30' 56"|
|67||Bernardo Alfonsel (ESP)||Teka||+ 1h 31' 00"|
|68||Eric Van de Wiele (BEL)||Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 31' 21"|
|69||Josef Wehrli (SUI)||Puch–Eurotex–Campagnolo||+ 1h 31' 21"|
|70||Antonio Coll (ESP)||Teka||+ 1h 32' 02"|
|71||Marc Gomez (FRA)||Wolber–Spidel||+ 1h 33' 00"|
|72||Serge Demierre (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||+ 1h 33' 56"|
|73||Rudy Pevenage (BEL)||Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 35' 23"|
|74||Jean-François Rault (FRA)||Wolber–Spidel||+ 1h 41' 55"|
|75||Ludwig Wijnants (BEL)||Sunair–Colnago–Campagnolo||+ 1h 42' 19"|
|76||Bruno Leali (ITA)||Inoxpran–Pentole Posate||+ 1h 42' 50"|
|77||Patrick Clerc (FRA)||Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo||+ 1h 43' 05"|
|78||Harald Maier (AUT)||Puch–Eurotex–Campagnolo||+ 1h 43' 50"|
|79||Mike Gutmann (SUI)||Puch–Eurotex–Campagnolo||+ 1h 43' 58"|
|80||Jean Chassang (FRA)||Wolber–Spidel||+ 1h 44' 21"|
|81||Pol Verschuere (BEL)||Vermeer–Thijs–Gios||+ 1h 46' 49"|
|82||Cédric Rossier (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||+ 1h 47' 08"|
|83||Patrick Moerlen (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||+ 1h 48' 07"|
|84||Dany Schoonbaert (BEL)||Vermeer–Thijs–Gios||+ 1h 48' 57"|
|85||Marc Dierickx (BEL)||DAF Trucks–Tévé Blad–Rossin||+ 1h 51' 17"|
|86||Hubert Arbes (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 1h 52' 06"|
|87||Eric McKenzie (NZL)||Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 54' 31"|
|88||Hendrik Devos (BEL)||DAF Trucks–Tévé Blad–Rossin||+ 1h 54' 39"|
|89||Claude Vincendeau (FRA)||Wolber–Spidel||+ 1h 56' 33"|
|90||Klaus-Peter Thaler (GER)||Puch–Eurotex–Campagnolo||+ 1h 56' 42"|
|91||Ludo Delcroix (BEL)||Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 58' 36"|
|92||Louis Luyten (BEL)||Vermeer–Thijs–Gios||+ 1h 59' 27"|
|93||Roger De Cnijf (BEL)||Vermeer–Thijs–Gios||+ 1h 59' 58"|
|94||Patrick Versluys (BEL)||Sunair–Colnago–Campagnolo||+ 2h 05' 33"|
|95||Erwin Lienhard (SUI)||Puch–Eurotex–Campagnolo||+ 2h 07' 51"|
|96||Pascal Guyot (FRA)||La Redoute–Motobecane||+ 2h 09' 00"|
|97||Eugène Urbany (LUX)||Wickes–Bouwmarkt–Splendor||+ 2h 09' 15"|
|98||Julius Thalmann (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||+ 2h 10' 46"|
|99||Jan van Houwelingen (NED)||Vermeer–Thijs–Gios||+ 2h 11' 19"|
|100||Marcel Laurens (BEL)||DAF Trucks–Tévé Blad–Rossin||+ 2h 11' 51"|
|101||Guy Janiszewski (BEL)||Sunair–Colnago–Campagnolo||+ 2h 13' 13"|
|102||Adrie van der Poel (NED)||DAF Trucks–Tévé Blad–Rossin||+ 2h 14' 42"|
|103||Siegfried Hekimi (SUI)||Puch–Eurotex–Campagnolo||+ 2h 15' 00"|
|104||Jean-Louis Gauthier (FRA)||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||+ 2h 15' 33"|
|105||Gilbert Glaus (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||+ 2h 15' 35"|
|106||Antonio Bevilacqua (ITA)||Hoonved–Botecchia||+ 2h 15' 58"|
|107||Hubert Graignic (FRA)||Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo||+ 2h 17' 01"|
|108||Frans Van Vlierberghe (BEL)||Sunair–Colnago–Campagnolo||+ 2h 18' 07"|
|109||Alfredo Chinetti (ITA)||Inoxpran–Pentole Posate||+ 2h 19' 26"|
|110||Felipe Yañez (ESP)||Teka||+ 2h 22' 13"|
|111||Paul Sherwen (GBR)||La Redoute–Motobecane||+ 2h 22' 54"|
|112||Thierry Bolle (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||+ 2h 26' 41"|
|113||Fiorenzo Aliverti (ITA)||Hoonved–Botecchia||+ 2h 27' 34"|
|114||André Chappuis (FRA)||Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo||+ 2h 28' 19"|
|115||André Chalmel (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 2h 33' 49"|
|116||Carlo Tonon (ITA)||Inoxpran–Pentole Posate||+ 2h 34' 33"|
|117||Dirk Wayenberg (BEL)||Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 2h 38' 22"|
|118||Benny Van Brabant (BEL)||Wickes–Bouwmarkt–Splendor||+ 2h 38' 57"|
|119||Marcel Russenberger (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||+ 2h 39' 32"|
|120||Giuliano Biatta (ITA)||Inoxpran–Pentole Posate||+ 2h 45' 10"|
|121||Enzo Serpelloni (ITA)||Hoonved–Botecchia||+ 2h 46' 18"|
|122||Juan Carlos Alonso (ESP)||Teka||+ 2h 51' 22"|
|123||Alain De Roo (BEL)||Sunair–Colnago–Campagnolo||+ 2h 51' 38"|
|124||Yvon Bertin (FRA)||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||+ 2h 55' 28"|
|125||Werner Devos (BEL)||Sunair–Colnago–Campagnolo||+ 3h 04' 44"|
|1||Sean Kelly (IRE)||Sem–France Loire–Campagnolo||429|
|2||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||152|
|3||Phil Anderson (AUS)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||149|
|4||Daniel Willems (BEL)||Sunair–Colnago–Campagnolo||143|
|5||Stefan Mutter (SUI)||Puch–Eurotex–Campagnolo||127|
|6||Pierre-Raymond Villemiane (FRA)||Wolber–Spidel||123|
|7||Adrie van Houwelingen (NED)||Vermeer–Thijs–Gios||103|
|8||Johan van der Velde (NED)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||97|
|9||Leo van Vliet (NED)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||80|
|1||Bernard Vallet (FRA)||La Redoute–Motobecane||278|
|2||Jean-René Bernaudeau (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||237|
|3||Beat Breu (SUI)||Cilo–Aufina||205|
|4||Bernard Hinault (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||141|
|5||Peter Winnen (NED)||Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx||113|
|6||Pascal Simon (FRA)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||112|
Young rider classification
|1||Phil Anderson (AUS)||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||92h +12' 02"|
|2||Kim Andersen (DEN)||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||+ 19' 41"|
|3||Marc Madiot (FRA)||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 37' 12"|
|4||Gerard Veldscholten (NED)||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 39' 14"|
|1||Coop–Mercier–Mavic||377h 25' 33"|
|2||Renault–Elf–Gitane||+ 14' 01"|
|3||Peugeot–Shell–Michelin||+ 26' 46"|
|4||TI Raleigh–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 55' 33"|
|5||La Redoute–Motobecane||+ 1h 15' 21"|
|6||Capri Sonne–Campagnolo–Merckx||+ 1h 43' 41"|
During the 1982 Tour de France, the Tour organisation was impressed by the global audience that the 1982 FIFA World Cup reached, and they made plans to develop the Tour into a World Cup format, run every four years, where teams from all over the earth would compete against each other. The main part of the race would be in France, but more other countries would be visited; it was discussed to start the Tour in New York.
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Media related to 1982 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons